The last twenty years have seen an unprecedented rise in the use of secret courts or 'closed material proceedings' largely brought about in response to the need to protect intelligence sources in the fight against terrorism. This has called into question the commitment of legal systems to long-cherished principles of adversarial justice and due process. Foremost among the measures designed to minimise the prejudice caused to parties who have been excluded from such proceedings has been the use of 'special advocates' who are given access to sensitive national security material and can make representations to the court on behalf of excluded parties. Special advocates are now deployed across a range of administrative, civil and criminal proceedings in many common law jurisdictions including the UK, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Australia.
This book analyses the professional services special advocates offer across a range of different types of closed proceedings. Drawing on extensive interviews with special advocates and with lawyers and judges who have worked with them, the book examines the manner in which special advocates are appointed and supported, how their position differs from that of ordinary counsel within the adversarial system, and the challenges they face in the work that they do. Comparisons are made between different special advocate systems and with other models of security-cleared counsel, including that used in the United States, to consider what changes might be made to strengthen their adversarial role in closed proceedings. In making an assessment of the future of special advocacy, the book argues that there is a need to reconceptualise the unique role that special advocates play in the administration of justice.
In the future, scientific and genetic advancement has gone through the roof. With the world becoming much smaller because of this, America is constantly trying to come up with new and inventive ways to stay on top as the strongest country in the world. As new advancements in weapons and tools of war are produced, so is the need from our government to come up with ways to protect our people and country especially our shorelines. This is where the new branch of the Armed Forces is created, the Aqua Marines. Scientists had recently discovered that sharks had evolved in our oceans to survive. One species, the great white shark, known as a solitary species, now hunts in packs. What was really interesting is that they had evolved differently in each coast. In the west coast, they hunted like lions do in a group called a pride with the alpha shark being female and in the east coast, they hunted and acted like a wolfpack with the leader being a dominant male. Our leaders and marine biologists were intrigued by the possibility of using these beasts to patrol and protect our shorelines. That was the easy part; the hard part was trying to capture these incredible animals without becoming part of their diet.
This is where the Aqua Marines come in, trained totally to work underwater to track and herd these beasts into underwater holding cells where they could be studied in hopes of finding a way for them to do our bidding.
Unbeknownst to the marines, other people had different ideas and with their knowledge to gene splicing and a total disregard for morals and ethics, a new superhero is born. His name is Stamper, John Stamper. So stay out of the water, The Frenzy is about to begin.
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