The demand for coal use (for electricity generation) and coal products, particularly liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, is increasing throughout the world. Traditional markets such as North America and Europe are experiencing a steady increase in demand whereas emerging Asian markets, such as India and China, are witnessing a rapid surge in demand for clean liquid fuels.
A detailed and comprehensive overview of the chemistry and technology of coal in the twenty-first century, The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, Third Edition also covers the relationship of coal industry processes with environmental regulations as well as the effects of combustion products on the atmosphere.
Maintaining and enhancing the clarity of presentation that made the previous editions so popular, this book:
In addition to two new chapters, Coal Use and the Environment and Coal and Energy Security, much of the material in this edition been rewritten to incorporate the latest developments in the coal industry. Citations from review articles, patents, other books, and technical articles with substantial introductory material are incorporated into the text for further reference.
The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, Third Edition maintains its initial premise: to introduce the science of coal, beginning with its formation in the ground to the production of a wide variety of products and petrochemical intermediates in the twenty-first century. The book will prove useful for scientists and engineers already engaged in the coal and/or catalyst manufacturing industry looking for a general overview or update on the clean coal technology as well as professional researchers and students in chemistry and engineering.
Natural gas and crude oil production from hydrocarbon rich deep shale formations is one of the most quickly expanding trends in domestic oil and gas exploration. Vast new natural gas and oil resources are being discovered every year across North America and one of those new resources comes from the development of deep shale formations, typically located many thousands of feet below the surface of the Earth in tight, low permeability formations. Deep Shale Oil and Gas provides an introduction to shale gas resources as well as offer a basic understanding of the geomechanical properties of shale, the need for hydraulic fracturing, and an indication of shale gas processing. The book also examines the issues regarding the nature of shale gas development, the potential environmental impacts, and the ability of the current regulatory structure to deal with these issues. Deep Shale Oil and Gas delivers a useful reference that today s petroleum and natural gas engineer can use to make informed decisions about meeting and managing the challenges they may face in the development of these resources.
Coal accounts for approximately one quarter of world energy consumption and of the coal produced worldwide approximately 65% is shipped to electricity producers and 33% to industrial consumers, with most of the remainder going to consumers in the residential and commercial sectors. The total share of total world energy consumption by coal is expected to increase to almost 30% in 2035.
This book describes the challenges and steps by which electricity is produced form coal and deals with the challenges for removing the environmental objections to the use of coal in future power plants. New technologies are described that could virtually eliminate the sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollutants that are released when coal is burned for electricity generation. In addition, technologies for the capture greenhouse gases emitted from coal-fired power plants are described and the means of preventing such emissions from contributing to global warming concerns.
Written by one of the world’s leading energy experts, this volume is a must-have for any engineer, scientist, or student working in this field, providing a valuable reference and guide in a quickly changing field.
The Refinery of the Future, Second Edition, delivers useful knowledge that will help the engineer understand the processes involved, feedstocks, composition and future technologies. Covering the basic chemistry, commercial processes already in use and future innovation, this reference gives engineers and managers the tools needed to understand refining products, feedstocks, and the processes critical to convert feedstocks to desired outcomes. New information concerning tight shale formations and heavy oil process options is included for today’s operations. Rounding out with future uses in shale, bioliquids and refinery configurations, this book gives engineers and refinery managers the knowledge to update and upgrade their refinery assets.
Gasification is one of the most important advancements that has ever occurred in energy production. Using this technology, for example, coal can be gasified into a product that has roughly half the carbon footprint of coal. On a large scale, gasification could be considered a revolutionary development, not only prolonging the life of carbon-based fuels, but making them “greener” and cleaner. As long as much of the world still depends on fossil fuels, gasification will be an environmentally friendlier choice for energy production.
But gasification is not just used for fossil fuels. Waste products that would normally be dumped into landfills or otherwise disposed of can be converted into energy through the process of gasification. The same is true of biofeedstocks and other types of feedstocks, thus making another argument for the widespread use of gasification.
The Handbook of Gasification Technology covers all aspects of the gasification, in a “one-stop shop,” from the basic science of gasification and why it is needed to the energy sources, processes, chemicals, materials, and machinery used in the technology. Whether a veteran engineer or scientist using it as a reference or a professor using it as a textbook, this outstanding new volume is a must-have for any library.
Tackling one of the most controversial subjects of our time, one of the world's foremost environmental and petroleum engineers explores the potential causes and ramifications of global climate change.
For too many years climate change (also referred to as global warming) has been assigned predominantly to the emissions of carbon dioxide through the combustion of fossil fuels. It must never be forgotten or ignored, however, that the Earth has been constantly changing since its formation and has gone through different eras like glaciations, among others. These changes need thousands of years to be made visible, and are likely still continuing, given the increase in the average temperature of the Earth since the pre-industrial period (provided that the measurements of past climatic temperatures are accurate and beyond reproach). It follows that the warming trend that has occurred over the past 100 years is very likely to have some origins in natural events as well as in human activity. The precise contributions of natural effects and anthropogenic effects on the climate are not known, but it is accurate to conclude that many factors continue to influence climate. Whether or not human activities have become a dominant force in the changing climate and are responsible for most of the warming observed is still open to question.
When studying the climate system of the Earth, an area of common confusion is whether climate scientists agree or disagree as to whether or not climate change is happening, or if it is happening, whether or not humans are the primary cause. There are a variety of reasons for this, but a majority of scientists who study climate and publish in peer-reviewed journals agree that human activity is causing the warming of the Earth.
The purpose of this book is to weigh all of these various data points and, in a scientific and unemotional way, arrive at likely conclusions regarding global climate change. Whether human activity is the main driver behind our current changes in climate, one thing is certain: Climate change is happening, and we all need to make informed, rather than emotional, decisions.
Handbook of Industrial Hydrocarbon Processes, Second Edition, provides an analysis of the process steps required to produce hydrocarbons from various raw materials and how the choice of a process depends not only on technology, but also on external effects, such as social and economic developments, political factors affecting the availability of raw materials, and environmental legislation. This book qualitatively examines chemical processes and plant design by showing the factors determining process structures, including the underlying chemistry, feedstock, product specifications and reactor design. The book also compares the processes for different products based on raw materials and manufacturing processes based on their respective applications.
With the addition of useful flowcharts that present an overview of the chemical processes, process design and equipment, this book is a valuable resource to industry professionals on how to understand how hydrocarbons are produced from different raw materials and how to develop an instinct for the right process development strategy.
Shale Oil and Gas Production Processes delivers the basics on current production technologies and the processing and refining of shale oil. Starting with the potential of formations and then proceeding to production and completion, this foundational resource also dives into the chemical and physical nature of the precursor of oil shale, kerogen, to help users understand and optimize its properties in shale. Rounding out with reporting, in situ retorting, refining and environmental aspects, this book gives engineers and managers a strong starting point on how to manage the challenges and processes necessary for the further development of these complex resources.
Natural Water Remediation: Chemistry and Technology considers topics such as metal ion solubility controls, pH, carbonate equilibria, adsorption reactions, redox reactions and the kinetics of oxygenation reactions that occur in natural water environments. The book begins with the fundamentals of acid-base and redox chemistry to provide a better understanding of the natural system. Other sections cover the relationships among environmental factors and natural water (including biochemical factors, hydrologic cycles and sources of solutes in the atmosphere). Chemical thermodynamic models, as applied to natural water, are then discussed in detail.
Final sections cover self-contained applications concerning composition, quality measurement and analyses for river, lake, reservoir and groundwater sampling.
Heavy Oil Recovery and Upgrading covers properties, factors, methods and all current and upcoming processes, giving engineers, new and experienced, the full spectrum of recovery choices, including SAGD, horizontal well technology, and hybrid approaches. Moving on to the upgrading and refining of the product, the book also includes information on in situ upgrading, refining options, and hydrogen production. Rounding out with environmental effects, management methods on refinery waste, and the possible future configurations within the refinery, this book provides engineers with a single source to make decisions and manage the full range of challenges.
Natural Gas: A Basic Handbook, Second Edition provides the reader with a quick and accessible introduction to a fuel source/industry that is transforming the energy sector. Written at an introductory level, but still appropriate for engineers and other technical readers, this book provides an overview of natural gas as a fuel source, including its origins, properties and composition. Discussions include the production of natural gas from traditional and unconventional sources, the downstream aspects of the natural gas industry. including processing, storage, and transportation, and environmental issues and emission controls strategies.
This book presents an ideal resource on the topic for engineers new to natural gas, for advisors and consultants in the natural gas industry, and for technical readers interested in learning more about this clean burning fuel source and how it is shaping the energy industry.
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