The ITF Transport Outlook provides an overview of recent trends and near-term prospects for the transport sector at a global level as well as long-term prospects for transport demand to 2050. The analysis covers freight (maritime, air, surface) and passenger transport (car, rail, air) as well as CO2 emissions. This 2019 edition of the ITF Transport Outlook specifically examines the impacts of potential disruptions to transport systems. It also reviews alternative policy scenarios for long-term trends in transport demand and CO2 emissions from all modes for both freight and passenger transport.
This report investigates how tax revenue from transport fuels could evolve over time as vehicles rely less on fossil fuels, with a focus on the case study of the Republic of Slovenia. Reducing the reliance on fossil fuels in the transport sector is a welcome development from the perspective of its climate and health impacts and of reduced energy dependence. However, under current settings, reduced fuel use will also lead to a loss of tax revenues, which may put stress on government budgets. Based on simulations for Slovenia, with a 2050 horizon, the report provides an in-depth assessment of the taxation of road transport and investigates how tax policy could adapt to declining fossil fuel use in the long term if the objective is to maintain revenues at current levels while taking fairness and efficiency considerations into account. It finds that gradual tax reforms, with an evolving mix of taxes, shifting from taxes on fuel to taxes on distances driven, can contribute to more sustainable tax policy over the long term.
Les partenariats public-privï¿½ (PPP) constituent un moyen important d'associer le secteur privï¿½ au financement, au dï¿½ploiement et ï¿½ la gestion des infrastructures. La renï¿½gociation fait partie intï¿½grante de tout PPP, mais l'on n'y accorde pas la mï¿½me importance partout dans le monde. Utilisï¿½e ï¿½ bon escient, elle permet d'adapter les termes du contrat en cas d'imprï¿½vu ï¿½tranger aux parties. Le risque existe aussi qu'il y soit recouru pour revenir sur l'ï¿½quilibre coï¿½ts-avantages du PPP tel qu'il avait ï¿½tï¿½ initialement dï¿½fini. L'objet de ce rapport est de passer en revue les formes de renï¿½gociation de PPP observï¿½es dans diverses rï¿½gions du monde et ï¿½ diffï¿½rentes ï¿½poques afin d'aider ï¿½ mieux comprendre ï¿½ quel moment l'exercice est souhaitable ou non. La conclusion gï¿½nï¿½rale ï¿½ en tirer est qu'un contrat bien ï¿½tabli ne devrait ï¿½tre que rarement renï¿½gociï¿½, et ce de faï¿½on trï¿½s espacï¿½e.
L'ï¿½valuation ex post est importante pour mieux atteindre les objectifs des politiques des transports. On l'utilise ï¿½ diffï¿½rentes fins, en premier lieu pour amï¿½liorer l'ï¿½valuation ex ante. Les exemples les plus notables de son application systï¿½matique, au demeurant rare, sont exposï¿½s dans ce rapport. La raison pour laquelle il n'y est pas davantage recouru tient notamment ï¿½ plusieurs problï¿½mes de mï¿½thodes et de donnï¿½es. Plusieurs pistes ont ï¿½tï¿½ explorï¿½es pour y remï¿½dier, avec l'ï¿½laboration de mï¿½thodes statistiques avancï¿½es, la crï¿½ation d'observatoires des transports chargï¿½s de conserver des donnï¿½es autrement perdues et la rï¿½alisation d'ï¿½tudes consistant ï¿½ comparer les pratiques ï¿½tablies dans des territoires similaires en matiï¿½re d'investissement et d'action publique. On trouvera dans ce rapport des exemples de bonnes pratiques, ainsi qu'une rï¿½flexion sur les potentialitï¿½s offertes par diffï¿½rentes approches et sur la maniï¿½re de les rendre complï¿½mentaires.
Este informe describe un cambio de paradigma en las polï¿½ticas de seguridad vial, liderado por un pequeï¿½o grupo de paï¿½ses, conforme a los principios del Sistema Seguro. Un Sistema Seguro estï¿½ basado en la premisa de que los accidentes de trï¿½nsito son predecibles y prevenibles, y de que es posible transitar hacia cero muertes y lesiones graves por accidentes de trï¿½nsito. Ello, sin embargo, requiere reconsiderar de manera fundamental la gobernanza y la implementaciï¿½n de las polï¿½ticas de seguridad vial. En el afï¿½n de contener la epidemia de muertes por accidentes de trï¿½nsito, las Naciones Unidas han establecido la meta de reducir a la mitad el nï¿½mero de vï¿½ctimas fatales para 2020. Cada aï¿½o, 1,25 millones de personas pierden la vida en accidentes de trï¿½nsito y hasta 50 millones sufren lesiones graves. Los accidentes de trï¿½nsito matan a mï¿½s personas que la malaria o la tuberculosis, y se encuentran entre las diez principales causas de muerte. Su costo econï¿½mico estimado oscila entre el 2 y 5% del PIB en muchos paï¿½ses. Escrito por un grupo internacional de expertos en materia de seguridad vial, este informe ofrece mejores prï¿½cticas y un punto de partida para que los lï¿½deres gubernamentales, administraciones pï¿½blicas, el sector privado y la academia tracen sus propios caminos hacia un Sistema Seguro.
L'objet de ce rapport est d'exposer plusieurs des progrï¿½s rï¿½cemment accomplis dans la mesure et l'analyse des avantages ï¿½conomiques des transports et de mettre en relief les mï¿½thodes les plus prometteuses. Sous l'effet conjuguï¿½ de la sophistication des chaï¿½nes logistiques modernes et de la tertiarisation, les dï¿½cideurs s'intï¿½ressent de plus en plus aux avantages ï¿½conomiques des transports au-delï¿½ de ceux traditionnellement considï¿½rï¿½s. L'ï¿½volution des mï¿½thodes d'ï¿½valuation et leur application dans l'aide ï¿½ la dï¿½cision rendent nï¿½cessaire de dresser un ï¿½tat des lieux dans deux domaines en particulier: les avantages liï¿½s ï¿½ la fiabilitï¿½ des transports et les effets ï¿½conomiques plus larges de l'ï¿½volution de la situation dans les transports.
This report sets out several of the recent advances, and suggests the most promising approaches, to the quantification and valuation of some of the wider economic benefits that flow from transport-related development. Economic appraisal can offer decision-makers important insights into the expected socio-economic impacts of transport projects. The sophistication of modern supply chains and the growing prominence of the services sector have increased the interest of decision-makers in economic benefits beyond those traditionally captured in transport appraisal.
This report is the third and final output of a ten-year international research project studying the costs and viability of long-life road pavement surfacings. It describes the results of tests conducted with epoxy asphalt and high performance cementitious materials (HPCM) on real road sections in France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The project was initiated to address a growing problem for road administrations and road users: frequent closures of roadways for repairs and repaving as a result of surface pavements that have improved but still barely kept up with increased loads and traffic density.
The ITF Transport Outlook provides an overview of recent trends and near-term prospects for the transport sector at a global level, as well as long-term prospects for transport demand to 2050, for freight (maritime, air and surface), passenger transport (car, rail and air) and CO2 emissions. This edition looks at how the main policy, economic and technological changes since 2015, along with other international developments (such as the Sustainable Development Goals), are shaping the future of mobility, and presents alternative policy scenarios for long-term trends in transport demand and CO2 emissions from all transport modes, freight and passenger. A special focus on accessibility in cities also highlights the role of policies in shaping sustainable transport systems that provide equal access to all.
The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2016 provides an overview for road safety performance for 2014 in 40 countries, with preliminary data for 2015, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators.
The report outlines the most recent safety data in IRTAD countries, including detailed analysis by road user, age group and type of road. It describes the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, the road safety strategies and targets in place and information on recent trends in speeding, drink-driving and other aspects of road user behaviour.
Decisions on expanding airport capacity are often controversial. Environmental impacts mean airport planning decisions are subjected to thorough public scrutiny even when financed by private investors. Where public funds are to be invested, issues of competition between airports and between the regions they serve can be as important as efficient use of public funds. Demand forecasts are central to the case for investment. Air passenger markets are highly dynamic and strongly influenced by the regulatory environment. Markets that have been de-regulated have seen rapid growth as prices fell and new, low-cost business models emerged. Liberalisation also stimulated re-organisation of network services with concentration of demand on a few hub airports. Demand for air services increases rapidly as incomes rise, but the market is not homogenous and understanding the drivers of each market is critical. Runway assets are relatively long lived and planning for the long term has to account for the risks entailed by these dynamics. This report reviews the state of the art in forecasting airport demand. It focuses particularly on addressing demand risk, passenger behavior and uncertainty and discusses how to make more effective use of such analysis in planning decisions.
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