The Five Civilized Tribes are among the best known Native American groups in American history, and they were even celebrated by contemporary Americans for their abilities to adapt to white culture. But tragically, they are also well known tribes due to the trials and tribulations they suffered by being forcibly moved west along the Trail of Tears.
The Cherokee began the process of assimilation with whites very early, even before the establishment of the Unites States, and by the early 19th century they were one of the "Five Civilized Tribes." Ultimately, however, it is unclear what benefits "civilization" brought the tribe. Throughout the colonial period and after the American Revolution, the Cherokee struggled to satisfy the whims and desires of American government officials and settlers, often suffering injustices after complying with their desires. Nevertheless, the Cherokee continued to endure, and after being pushed west, they rose from humble origins as refugees new to the southeastern United States to build themselves back up into a powerhouse both economically and militarily. Even after being forced to leave their traditional homeland again, they once more rose to become a powerful tribe and nation, ruling themselves and building their economic power through wise and skillful leadership.
Though not as well known as the Cherokee, two of the Five Civilized Tribes were the Chickasaw and Choctaw. With roots that tie them to the Ancient Moundbuilders, the Chickasaw and Choctaw were among the most established groups in the Southeastern United States, and they were among the first natives encountered by Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto's historic expedition in the mid-16th century. They became known as two of the Five Civilized Tribes for quickly assimilating aspects of European culture, but in response to early European contact, they also became part of one of the strongest confederacies in the region. Ultimately, however, they were pushed westward during the mid-19th century and were notoriously part of the Trail of Tears.
Despite becoming a dominant regional force, infighting among the Creek brought about civil war in the early 19th century, and they were quickly wrapped up in the War of 1812 as well. By the end of that fighting, the Creek were compelled to cede millions of acres of land to the expanding United States, ushering in a new era that found the Creek occupying only a small strip of Alabama by the 1830s.
With the Spanish Empire foundering during the mid-19th century, the young United States sought to take possession of Florida. President Andrew Jackson's notorious policy of Indian Removal led to the Seminole Wars in the 1830s, and that was already after General Andrew Jackson had led American soldiers against the Seminole in the First Seminole War a generation earlier. The Seminole Wars ultimately pushed much of the tribe into Oklahoma, and the nature of some of the fighting remains one of the best known aspects of Seminole history among Americans.
The Five Civilized Tribes comprehensively covers the culture and history of the famous tribes, profiling their origins, their famous leaders, and their lasting legacy. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole like you never have before.
"I counted as spoil 27,280 people, together with their chariots, and gods, in whom they trusted. I formed a unit with 200 of [their] chariots for my royal force. I settled the rest of them in the midst of Assyria. I repopulated Samaria more than before. I brought into it people from countries conquered by my hands. I appointed my commissioner as governor over them, and I counted them as Assyrians." - Sargon II, Assyrian king
In the 8th century BCE, one of the most important provinces within the Assyrian Empire was Samaria. Also known as Israel, Samaria repeatedly rebelled against their Assyrian overlords, but in 722, the Assyrians overran Samaria once and for all, killing countless numbers and sending most of the rest of its inhabitants into forced exile. The events of Samaria's fall were chronicled in the Assyrian annals from the reign of Sargon II and the Old Testament, and although the two sources present the event from different perspectives, they corroborate each other for the most part and together present a reliable account of the situation. The end result was that 30,000 Israelites were forcibly deported from the region, a tactic the Assyrians found so effective that they would continue to use it against other conquered enemies until the fall of their own empire.
The Assyrians' forced exile of the Israelites was not the only time such a fate had befallen them, as made clear by Babylonian accounts and the Biblical account of the Exodus out of Egypt, but it was that exile that permanently scattered most of the legendary 12 tribes of Israel, and the fate of the 10 lost tribes has interested people ever since.
The patriarchal stories in Genesis explain the following about the origin of the tribes of Israel. The patriarch Jacob, whose name was later changed to Israel (Gen 32:28), was himself the son of Isaac and the grandson of Abraham. He had 12 sons who are the eponymous ancestors of the 12 tribes of Israel. Genesis lists the 12 sons according to their mothers. Jacob had five sons with his first wife: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, and Issachar. Leah's maid, Zilpah, bore another two sons to Jacob: Gad and Asher. His second wife, Rachel, also bore only two sons: Joseph and Benjamin; as did her maid, Bilhah: Dan and Naphtali.
The simple version of the Ten Lost Tribes is that modern Jewish communities are composed of the descendants of two of these 12 tribes because Cyrus the Great allowed these tribes to return to Judah from their captivity in Babylon. However, the location and fate of the remaining 10 tribes, deported by the Assyrians from the northern kingdom of Israel two centuries earlier, remains a mystery, and it is this mystery that lies at the heart of the search for the Ten Lost Tribes.
The Ten Lost Tribes looks at what is known and unknown about the missing tribes of Israel, and speculation as to their fate. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Lost Tribes of Israel like never before, in no time at all.
"These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria..." - Herodotus
Of all the peoples of the ancient Near East, the Phoenicians are among the most recognizable but also perhaps the least understood. The Phoenicians never built an empire like the Egyptians and Assyrians; in fact, the Phoenicians never created a unified Phoenician state but instead existed as independent city-state kingdoms scattered throughout the Mediterranean region. However, despite the fact there was never a "Phoenician Empire," the Phoenicians proved to be more prolific in their exploration and colonization than any other peoples in world history until the Spanish during the Age of Discovery.
The Phoenicians were well-known across different civilizations throughout the ancient world, and their influence can be felt across much of the West today because they are credited with inventing the forerunner to the Greek alphabet, from which the Latin alphabet was directly derived. Nonetheless, the Phoenicians left behind few written texts, so modern historians have been forced to reconstruct their past through a variety of ancient Egyptians, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and Roman sources. It's not even clear what the Phoenicians called themselves, because the name "Phoenician" is derived from the Greek word "phoinix", which possibly relates to the dyes they produced and traded (Markoe 2000, 10). The mystery of the ancient Phoenicians is further compounded by the fact that archaeologists have only been able to excavate small sections of the three primary Phoenician cities: Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre.
Despite the inherent problems in reconstructing Phoenician history, there are enough primary sources available to accurately place the Phoenician people in their proper historical context within the ancient Near East, and scholars have found that given their extensive exploration, colonization, trade, and manufacturing (among other things), the Phoenicians deserve to be considered alongside the other well-known peoples of antiquity.
The Phoenicians: The History and Culture of One of the Ancient World's Most Influential Civilizations comprehensively covers the history, culture, and lingering mysteries behind the Phoenicians, profiling their origins and their lasting legacy.. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Phoenicians like never before, in no time at all.
"First news from Galveston just received by train which could get no closer to the bay shore than six miles where the prairie was strewn with debris and dead bodies. About 200 corpses counted from the train. Large steamship stranded two miles inland. Nothing could be seen of Galveston. Loss of life and property undoubtedly most appalling. Weather clear and bright here with gentle southeast wind." - G.L. Vaughan, Manager of Western Union in Houston, in a telegram to the Chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau on the day after the hurricane.
In 2005, the world watched in horror as Hurricane Katrina decimated New Orleans, and the calamity seemed all the worse because many felt that technology had advanced far enough to prevent such tragedies, whether through advanced warning or engineering. At the same time, that tends to overlook all of the dangers posed by hurricanes and other phenomena that produce natural disasters. After all, storms and hurricanes have been wiping out coastal communities ever since the first humans built them.
As bad as Hurricane Katrina was, the hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas on September 8, 1900 killed several times more people, with an estimated death toll between 6,000-12,000 people. Prior to advanced communications, few people knew about impending hurricanes except those closest to the site, and in the days before television, or even radio, catastrophic descriptions were merely recorded on paper, limiting an understanding of the immediate impact. Stories could be published after the water receded and the dead were buried, but by then, the immediate shock had worn off and all that remained were the memories of the survivors. Thus, it was inevitable that the Category 4 hurricane wrought almost inconceivable destruction as it made landfall in Texas with winds at 145 miles per hour.
It was only well into the 20th century that meteorologists began to name storms as a way of distinguishing which storm out of several they were referencing, and it seems somewhat fitting that the hurricane that traumatized Galveston was nameless. Due to the lack of technology and warning, many of the people it killed were never identified, and the nameless corpses were eventually burned in piles of bodies that could not be interred due to the soggy soil. Others were simply buried at sea. The second deadliest hurricane in American history claimed 2,500 lives, so it's altogether possible that the Galveston hurricane killed over 4 times more than the next deadliest in the U.S. To this day, it remains the country's deadliest natural disaster.
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 chronicles the story of the deadliest hurricane in American history. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Galveston Hurricane like never before, in no time at all.
On January 31, 378 AD, a massive army arrived at the gates of the city of Tikal, one of the Ancient Maya's most important settlements in the Yucatan Peninsula. The events that transpired became known by the Spanish name "Entrada" ("Entry"), referring to "the entry of Teotihuacan". While there is no clear record of the events due to the sheer scale of destruction that took place, it's clear that neither Tikal nor the Maya as a whole had ever seen anything like it because these foreign soldiers not only conquered but also subsequently ruled Tikal despite the fact they had come from Teotihuacan, located about 630 miles (1,013 kilometers) away. In the process, the Teotihuacanos not only changed Tikal but the direction of the Mayan civilization for centuries to come.
At the time, Teotihuacan was the biggest city in South America and was located in the Valley of Mexico near today's Mexico City. Thriving between 100-750 AD, it was one of the largest cities in the ancient world, with a population estimated at upwards of 150,000-250,000, over three times the size of contemporary Mayan capitals. Furthermore, Teotihuacan was a supremely well-planned and efficient city that was able to field massive armies and extend its power far beyond its home base to create a unified empire unlike anything in the region before it. In fact, the city's residents seemed so sure of its power that there were apparently no walls or military fortifications around Teotihuacan. Thanks to that power, Teotihuacan not only served as a vital center for trade in Ancient Mesoamerica but also spread its architecture, art, religion, and culture, all of which subsequently influenced the famous Mesoamerican civilizations that followed, including the Aztec and Maya.
Although Teotihuacan reached the height of its power and influence about 1500 years ago, the city is still an endless topic of fascination and debate, in addition to being Mexico's most toured archaeological site. The origins of the city remain mysterious (as do the city's founders), and scholars are still coming up with theories to explain the city's demise. All the while, later Mesoamerican civilizations remembered Teotihuacan, and the Aztec even considered the city's ruins a site of worship.
Teotihuacan: The History of Ancient Mesoamerica's Largest City covers the history of the city, as well as the speculation and debate surrounding it. Along with pictures, footnotes, and a bibliography, you will learn about Teotihuacan like you never have before, in no time at all.
Standard Delivery: Between 22 Apr - 6 May Express Delivery: Between 21 Apr - 26 Apr Standard Delivery: Between 27 Apr - 10 May Express Delivery: Between 26 Apr - 28 Apr Standard Delivery: Between 28 Apr - 12 May Express Delivery: Between 27 Apr - 30 Apr Standard Delivery: Between 28 Apr - 21 May Express Delivery: Between 27 Apr - 11 May Standard Delivery: Between 30 Apr - 17 May Express Delivery: Between 29 Apr - 5 May Standard Delivery: Between 11 May - 1 Jun Express Delivery: Between 10 May - 20 May Standard Delivery: Between Express Delivery: Between