Arthur Schopenhauer articulated a rogue reality that contrasts with the intelligible (aristocratic) reality defined by Kant as the -½thing in itself-+ and the quantifiable (bourgeois) reality embodied in the notion of energy. The rogue reality provided the brain model for Freud's later works, and the conceptual foundation for the -½death drive-+ of Lacan's theory. The rogue reality is accompanied by a non-Cartesian dualism that is fundamental to the modernist impulse.
Towards a Rogue Reality
Kant to Freud, and Beyond
Studies in Modern European History
Education & Reference /