As a result of the various reforms of the Tanzimat era, Ottoman authority in Iraq was much stronger and better administered by the 1870s, than it had been when the Ottomans imposed direct rule over the region in the 1830s. This book is the first study of Ottoman centralization and modernization in the frontier province of Baghdad during the 19th century, shedding light on the extent to which Baghdad, and more generally Iraq, was connected to the imperial centre of the Ottoman Empire in this era. Ebubekir Ceylan considers the fall of Mamluk rule in Baghdad and presents a detailed account of the Ottoman administrative and military centralization imposed after 1831. For the first time, the application of Tanzimat reforms in Iraq has been thoroughly examined using archival sources, making this book a vital resource for understanding Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman provinces in general and in the Arab provinces in particular. Given the tribal and sectarian nature of the Iraqi provinces it is important to note how far the centralization policies of the Tanzimat era were successfully implemented and how the local population reacted to these policies. Theis book is an important contribution to the available literature on Ottoman Iraq, emphasizing Istanbul's efforts to modernize the Iraqi provinces and giving due attention to local dynamics and attitudes. It also considers the improvements in infrastructure, including steam navigation, telegraph communication, education, printing, the publication of the first provincial newspaper and many other significant developments. It becomes clear that these public works played a crucial role in aligning Iraq not only to the imperial center in Istanbul but also to international networks. The period of the Tanzimat reforms in Iraq had a considerable influence on the region which can help to better understand the emergence of the modern Middle East. In short, this book aims to analyze and explore the Ottoman Origins of Modern Iraq.
Ottoman Origins of Modern Iraq
Political Reform, Modernization and Development in the Nineteenth Century Middle East