In early 1918, it seemed to many that the British people and their allies were close to defeat. At home, the chief culprit was the German U-boat. Sailing almost unopposed from the North Sea ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend, the submarines were taking a heavy toll of allied shipping, and no one seemed to be doing anything about it. The job eventually went to Vice-Admiral Roger Keyes ("The Modern Nelson"), who had a long record of close action with enemies from China to the Heligoland Bight. Equally, he was unafraid of those senior to him who he considered as incompetent. Within days of his appointment, Keyes had put together an audacious plan to sink block ships in the enemy-held ports. His success, along with the 11 VCs won in the battles, led his detractors to play down his achievement, even by using German propaganda. This entirely new account sets the record straight.
No Pyrrhic Victories
History Press Limited, The
The 1918 Raids on Zeebrugge and Ostend - a Radical Reappraisal