This self-contained book is an up-to-date description of the basic theory of molecular gas dynamics and its various applications. The book, unique in the literature, presents working knowledge, theory, techniques, and typical phenomena in rarefied gases for theoretical development and application. Basic theory is developed in a systematic way and presented in a form easily applied for practical use. In this work, the ghost effect and non-Navier-Stokes effects are demonstrated for typical examples--B+¬nard and Taylor-Couette problems--in the context of a new framework. A new type of ghost effect is also discussed.