Once hailed as 'the eternal state', the Ottoman Empire was in decline by the end of the nineteenth century, finally collapsing under the pressures of World War I. Engaged in a_x000D_struggle to justify its former appellation, the 'sick man of Europe' sought to combat escalating internal fragmentation and find its footing in contemporary geopolitics._x000D__x000D_Today the region is composed of more than 20 separate nation-states. Yet while the political lines may have been re-drawn, these countries' Ottoman legacies undoubtedly endure. In this context, the role of Ottoman schools and educational policies is crucial, for these were the institutions which most forcefully conditioned citizens' notions of faith and identity. Empire and Education under the Ottomans analyses Ottoman educational politics from 1869_x000D_until the Young Turk Revolution in 1908. It explores their significance as state-led initiatives, intended to achieve socio-political control through 'reform', and as contested terrains in centre-periphery struggles. It conclusively demonstrates that educational policies devised to build citizenship and encourage loyalty across the region actually heightened religious and ethno-linguistic identities: hastening, rather than inhibiting, the empire's demise. Drawing on a wealth of original research, and providing the first ever English translation of the influential 1869 Education Act, Emine Evered unravels a dynamic history of sociological interactions. The book is unique among histories of education and schooling in the Middle East as the first study to evaluate policies in the context of local responses and resistance. It questions the topdown characterization historians often ascribe to the era's politics, providing compelling evidence that we may better understand the late Ottoman age as one defined instead through local adaptation, negotiation and resistance._x000D__x000D_Exploring these themes through a series of regional studies, Evered illuminates the complex nature of the Empire, and the dilemmas it faced in the greater context of educational reform. This lively and impressively researched study represents a valuable new addition to the historiography of the Ottoman Empire, and is important reading for all historians interested in the Standing beneath the phrase Padi?ah?m ok Ya?a! ('Long period or in the history of education.
Empire and Education under the Ottomans
Politics, Reform and Resistance from the Tanzimat to the Young Turks